Monday, August 19, 2019

GALLIPOLI, 1915



The Gallipoli campaign, also known as the Dardanelles campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey), from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916. The Entente powers, Britain, France and the Russian Empire, sought to weaken the Ottoman Empire, one of the Central Powers, by taking control of the straits that provided a supply route to Russia. The Allies' attack on Ottoman forts at the entrance of the Dardanelles in February 1915 failed and was followed by an amphibious landing on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915 to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul).

In January 1916, after eight months' fighting, with approximately 250,000 casualties on each side, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force withdrawn. It was a costly defeat for the Allies and for the sponsors, especially First Lord of the Admiralty (1911–1915), Winston Churchill. The campaign was considered a great Ottoman victory. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the history of the state, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire retreated. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later, with Kemal Atatürk, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli, as founder and president.

The campaign is often considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national consciousness; 25 April, the anniversary of the landings, is known as ANZAC Day, the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in the two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).
Text via Wikipedia




A legacy of ‘mateship’ was cemented in the Australian and New Zealand ranks during the Gallipoli campaign. This characterised ANZAC soldiers as tough, resourceful men, loyal to their mates and their country. They were seen as courageous in battle and having a healthy disdain for any authority. This photograph shows an Australian carrying a wounded comrade on his shoulders on Walkers Ridge down to a medical aid post.



 Body of a dead Turkish soldier near barbed wire defences.



A Turkish cemetery on the battlefield behind the Krithia Sector



Barbed wire entanglements near Sedd el Bahr at Cape Helles, still in position after the landing on April 25th 1915. 



An ANZAC road-making party, and a number of men of several units with a fatigue party of Turkish men, and French soldiers further back. In the background is the Old Castle at Sedd el Bahr.



Three French staff officers within the Old Fort at Sedd el Bahr. They are standing by one of the guns destroyed by the bombardments of the British Navy.



Lord Kitchener visits the remnants of the French garrison at the fort of Sedd el Bahr, 12th November 1915. Behind him are General Jean-Marie Brulard, the Commander-in-Chief of the Corps Expeditionaire d'Orient, and General Henry McMahon, the High Commissioner for Egypt. The shells are Turkish ones in the ruined old castle.



Turkish prisoners proved themselves excellent workmen, and are here seen building a platform for an anti-aircraft gun intended for use against enemy aeroplanes.



Wing Commander Charles Rumney Samson of No. 3 Squadron RNAS and two of his pilots watching Turkish prisoners prepare a gun platform, Lemnos.



Wing Commander Charles Rumney Samson of No. 3 Squadron RNAS about to start on one of excursions over the Turkish lines.



A Turkish Sniper photographed immediately after capture, and while he was being brought in under guard. The Turk was ingeniously screened by a Jack-In-The-Green arrangement of foliage attached to his clothing.



Turkish prisoners being taken back through Gully Ravine.



A scene after the naval bombardment of the Dardanelles ports, prior to the Gallipoli landings. British soldiers examine a 9.4 inch coastal defence gun on Fort I (on 'V' Beach, Cape Helles) having been dismounted by a direct hit, believed to have been fired from Y Turret of HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH on 25th February 1915. In the background is Hill 141.



The grave of three officers, Captain Thomas Bowyer-Lane Maunsell, Captain Aubery Jocelyn Nugent Thomas, and Lieutenant Ellis Clark, 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers who were killed in action on 'W' Beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli on 25 April 1915.



Dead on the cliffs that were taken by the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, 26 April 1915.



'W' Beach (Lancashire Landing), Cape Helles, Gallipoli. The cliff stormed by the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers.



A British soldier giving a Turkish prisoner a drink from his water bottle, Gallipoli.



An abandoned Turkish trench, Gallipoli, 1915.



Men of the 6th Battalion, Manchester Regiment manning a machine gun and using periscopes, Gallipoli, 1915.



Group of Turkish officers at Dardanelles, 1915.




A gun in the old fortress at Sedd el Bahr at Cape Helles, which was destroyed by a naval bombardment from HMS CORNWALLIS prior to the Gallipoli landings. The gun bears aTurkish inscription meaning "God, be with us"



Turkish prisoners, captured duirng the Gallipoli campaign, loading a cart in the French Sector of 'V' Beach at Sedd el Bahr, Cape Helles.




Turkish prisoners, captured duirng the Gallipoli campaign, drawing water from a water-cart in the French Sector of 'V' Beach at Sedd el Bahr, Cape Helles.



Turkish prisoners captured during the landings at Gallipoli seen in the courtyard of the old fort at Sedd el Bahr, Cape Helles, Turkey.



An abandoned Turkish trench, Gallipoli, 1915.



Turkish prisoners, captured during the Gallipoli campaign on the march with a French Zouave escort. Sedd el Bahr village and French Camps are seen in the background.



An Australian infantryman gives a drink to a wounded Turkish soldier during the Gallipoli Campaign, 1915.



A Royal Irish Fusilier at Gallipoli in 1915, attempts to draw the fire of a Turkish sniper to reveal his position.



The 12-inch guns of the Royal Navy battleship HMS CANOPUS fire at Turkish batteries during operations in the the Dardanelles during 1915.



Turkish prisoners in a wire cage at Sedd El Bahr, having been captured by 42nd (East Lancashire) Division during the 3rd Battle of Krithia, 4th June 1915. A tent is visible within the cage.



British escort from the 42nd (East Lancashire) Division, is seen giving a wounded Turkish prisoner a drink from his water-bottle following capture during the Third Battle of Krithia, 4th June 1915.



ANZAC soldiers burying dead Turkish soldiers near Anzac Beach, 1915.



ANZAC soldiers in their trench overlooking Anzac Beach, 1915.



ANZAC soldiers in their trenches on Anzac Beach, 1915.



An ANZAC soldier in his trench on Anzac Beach, 1915.



ANZAC soldiers burying dead Turkish soldiers near Anzac Beach, 1915.



Dead Turkish soldiers on Anzac Beach, 1915.



An ANZAC officer outside his hut on Anzac Beach, 1915.



Dead Turkish soldiers on Anzac Beach, 1915.



For a campaign that lasted less than a year the death toll at Gallipoli was very high. Approximately 44,000 British, French, ANZAC and Indian troops were killed. Coming so early in the war, this huge loss of life had a powerful impact on those at home particularly in Australia and New Zealand as this was the first time they had suffered such heavy losses. Estimates of those killed from the Ottoman Empire range between 66,000 and 86,000.



Landings at Anzac Cove at 8am, 25 April 1915-----On 25 April 1915 Allied troops landed on a series of beaches along the Gallipoli peninsula. The Turkish defences were well prepared and Allied troops struggled to get ashore as the Turks contained the landings.  Both sides suffered devastating losses. In this photograph Sapper R Reynolds lies at the waters edge, an Australian engineer, and the first to fall during the campaign.



Australian Enlistment poster------The land campaign in Gallipoli meant that the Allies’ already limited resources were stretched even further. They now needed to send thousands of men along with supplies such as food, weapons and munitions to a new front. In 1915 Gallipoli was the only campaign that soldiers from the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) were involved with.  It became a focus for recruitment in those countries and has remained one of the most defining and unifying moments in Australia and New Zealand’s history.



Troops from all over the world fought at Gallipoli. The British army included men from Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, India and Newfoundland (now part of Canada). The French army included men from many of their North African colonies as well as France itself. This photograph shows troops of the 14th Sikhs of the 29th Indian Infantry Brigade examining a piece of shell from "Asiatic Annie“, a notorious Turkish gun that constantly shelled the Allied forces at Helles.



Scorching heat during summer gave way to torrential autumn rain and a freezing winter. Almost all soldiers suffered from dysentery. This photograph shows frost-bitten soldiers lying on straw in shelters constructed of biscuit boxes, after a blizzard in November 1915 that caused some 160,000 cases of frostbite, and froze 280 men to death.



British Dardanelles fleet







British battleship HMS Agamemnon bombarding the Dardanelles Straits March 1915



HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH



HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH on their way to Gallipoli.



The British and French Fleets attacking the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles waterway in March 1915



Queen Elizabeth was the most powerful battleship in the British Fleet bombarding the Gallipoli Peninsular during the 1915 campaign



The British battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth firing a 15 inch broadside.



The periscope rifle used at Gallipoli, designed by an Australian, allowed the Anzacs to remain hidden while shooting at the enemy.



Remains of an ANZAC trench , Gallipoli 1915



Billy Sing earned the nicknames "The Murderer" and "The Assassin" as a deadly sniper who shot more than 200 Ottoman troops during the Gallipoli campaign of World War I.

He was also part-Chinese and among thousands from non-European backgrounds, some of whom hid their identity, who joined the Australian Imperial Force to fight for their country despite being legally barred from signing up.



A British soldier visits a friend. Gallipoli, 1915







Turkish soldiers in a trench at Gallipoli. 



Esat Pasha, the commander of the 3rd Turkish Corps and some of his officers. 



A group of Turkish WWI soldiers at Gallipoli



Turkish soldiers in a trench at Gallipoli. 1915



John Augusto Emilio Harris killed in action at Gallipoli aged 15 years young.



Turkish troops at Gallipoli



Australian troops in the trenches at Gallipoli, 1915.



Turkish defenses at Gallipoli, spring 1915.



Allied soldiers land and begin the attack at Gallipoli







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