Sunday, August 30, 2020

10 Amazing Facts About Victorian Post-Mortem Photography

The invention of the daguerreotype in 1839 made portraiture much more commonplace, as
many of those who were unable to afford the commission of a painted portrait could afford
to sit for a photography session. This cheaper and quicker method also provided the
middle class with a means for memorializing dead loved ones.

Post-mortem photography was very common in the nineteenth century when "death occurred in
the home and was quite an ordinary part of life." As photography was a new medium, it is
plausible that "many daguerreotype post-mortem portraits, especially those of infants and
young children, were probably the only photographs ever made of the sitters.

These photographs served as keepsakes to remember the deceased. The later invention of
the carte de visite, which allowed multiple prints to be made from a single negative,
meant that copies of the image could be mailed to relatives. Approaching the 20th
century, cameras became more accessible and more people began to be able to take
photographs for themselves.

1. People Would Have Photos Taken of Their Loved Ones in Caskets

The earliest Victorian death photos were simple: the dead person was photographed in a
casket, usually in the parlor of their home before loved ones came to pay their respects.
These were a simple way of remembering the deceased, and served as a form of memento
mori, a popular Latin phrase of the time that translates to "remember that you will die."

2. Mothers Would Hide Behind a Sheet While Holding Their Deceased Children

These photos, called "hidden mother" pictures, were taken because the mother didn't want
to be seen. So she simply hid behind a sheet and held the baby in her arms. (In some
cases, the baby photographed isn't dead, the mother is simply there to hold him or her
still, so researchers often have a hard time determining which of these photos feature
deceased babies.)

3. Artists Would Paint Open Eyeballs on the Dead's Eyelids

Later in the Victorian period, photography advanced to the point where simple,
Photoshop-like touches were possible. After the picture was developed, things like rosy
cheeks could be painted on to make the deceased look more lifelike. Open eyes were
painted onto the photo negative to further disguise the dead as the living.

4. Stands Sometimes Held Up the Bodies of the Deceased

In order to make the deceased look so full of life that he or she was standing, special
stands were used. These stands would be disguised by curtains and by the body of the
deceased person itself. In this case, you can see the base of the stand behind the boy's
feet, and someone or something is holding his head straight from behind the curtain.

5. Parents Would Pose Alongside Their Dead Children

Childhoood death rates during the Victorian era were very high, thanks to diseases like 
smallpox and tuberculosis. Many children did not make it to the age of three. Sadly, the 
only photo taken of an entire family might be one with the youngest in a coffin. 

6. Brothers and Sisters Would Pose Alongside Their Deceased Siblings

In some cases, living siblings would be made to pose alongside their recently deceased 
brothers and sisters. This particular picture has three living brothers and one sister 
lined up, with their dead sister on the very left. This type of family portrait would be 
displayed in the parlor of the home, so that everyone would remember the deceased 

7. Props Were Used to Help Remember the Dead

During the later part of the Victorian period, the deceased were posed with some of their 
favorite items. Young girls were photographed alongside dolls, while adults were posed 
with other things, like books, letters, or flowers. This was done to help the living 
remember their dead loved ones and their personality, profession, or hobbies,

8. Photos of Deceased Infants Were Unfortunately Popular

The mortality rate for infants was extremely high during the Victorian period due to the 
lack of penicillin and vaccinations. Because of this, there are a lot of surviving post 
mortem photographs of deceased infants. These pictures helped the parents of these 
children remember their very short lives.

9. A Living Spouse Posed Alongside an Expired One

For married couples who couldn't afford standard family photographs, pictures were 
usually taken on two different occasions: the day of their wedding, and the day that one 
of them died. The latter pictures were taken to prove how devoted the surviving spouse 
was to the deceased. 

10. Some Photos Were Taken With More Than One Deceased Person in Them

Some post-mortem photos had multiple generations of deceased people in them. This photo, 
of a father and child, is a good example of that. Even though the man looks alive, the 
stiffness of his hands and the blank look on his face make it obvious that he is not. 

Friday, August 14, 2020

Building America’s Arsenal of Democracy: Alfred Palmer’s Portraits Of War

Alfred T. Palmer’s (1906–1993) color photographs for the US Farm Security Administration / Office of War Information speak with a loud, bold, clear and consistent voice. They say: ‘Heroes.’  They might also add, “To infinity and beyond”, given that so many of the men in uniform are gazing upwards to the rosy-fingered dawn, just as we gaze up at the strong chins and keen eyes. The women are focused on the job in hand. Immaculate in complexion and attire, these “capable” women are vivid and bright, immortalised in solid blocks of color. Contrasted against the darkened backdrop, they epitomise dependability.

 In 1939 when Hitler attacked Poland the United States ranked twentieth as a world military power. In June of 1940 President Roosevelt and Congress passed a bill for the building of a major two ocean navy. At that time Roosevelt formed the National Defense Advisory Commission of the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and Palmer was chosen to head the photography department. To rally and inform citizens about the use of their tax dollars and resources, Palmer was sent out to photograph Americans building what Roosevelt termed the Arsenal of Democracy…

In 1941, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Palmer became official photographer for the newly formed Office of War Information (OWI).

Crane operator at TVA’s Douglas Dam, Tennessee

This woman in a glass house is putting finishing touches on the bombardier nose section of a B-17F navy bomber, Long Beach, Calif.

Workers are trained to do precise and vital engine installation detail in Douglas Aircraft Company plants, Long Beach, Calif.

Women at work on bomber, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, Calif.

Workers become skilled shop technicians after careful training in the school at the Douglas Aircraft Company plant, Long Beach, Calif.

workers install fixtures and assemblies to a tail fuselage section of a B-17 bomber at the Douglas Aircraft Company plant, Long Beach, Calif.

Large electric phosphate smelting furnace used in the making of elemental phosphorus in a TVA chemical plant in the Muscle Shoals area, Alabama.

Marine lieutenant by the power towing plane for the gliders at Page Field, Parris Island, S.C.

Two workers are shown capping and inspecting tubing which goes into the manufacture of the Vengeance (A-31) dive bomber made at Vultee’s Nashville division, Tennessee.

Operating a hand drill at Vultee-Nashville, a worker is working on a Vengeance dive bomber, Tennessee.

Operating a hand drill at Vultee-Nashville, woman is working on a Vengeance dive bomber, Tennessee.

Working on a Vengeance dive bomber, Vultee [Aircraft Inc.], Nashville, Tennessee.

A nose wheel and landing gear assembly for a B-25 bomber under construction in a western aircraft plant, North American Aviation, Inc., Calif.

Part of the cowling for one of the motors for a B-25 bomber is assembled in the engine department of North American [Aviation, Inc.]’s Inglewood, Calif., plant.

Metal parts are placed on masonite by this woman employee before they slide under the multi-ton hydropress, North American Aviation, Inc., Inglewood, Calif.

Sheet metal parts are numbered with this pneumatic numbering machine in North American’s sheet metal department, N[orth] A[merican] Aviation, Inc., Inglewood, Calif.

Two employees of North American Aviation, Incorporated, assembling a section of a wing for a P-51 fighter plane.

An employee of North American Aviation, working over the landing gear mechanism of a P-51 fighter plane, Inglewood, Calif. The mechanism resembles a small cannon.

 Riveting team working on the cockpit shell of a B-25 [i.e. C-47] bomber at the plant of North American Aviation, Inc., Inglewood [i.e. Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach], Calif.

Welder making boilers for a ship, Combustion Engineering Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.

A combat crew receives final instructions just before taking off in a mighty YB-17 bomber from a bombardment squadron base at the field, Langley Field, Va.

Hitler would like this man to go home and forget about the war. A good American non-com at the side machine gun of a huge YB-17 bomber is a man who knows his business and works hard at it.

Tightening a nut on a guide vane operating seromotor in TVA’s hydroelectric plant, Watts Bar Dam, Tennessee.

Truck driver at TVA’s Douglas Dam, Tennessee.

Carpenter at work on Douglas Dam, Tennessee (TVA).

Tank driver, Ft. Knox, Ky.

 Mechanic, motor maintenance section, Ft. Knox, Ky.

M-4 tank crews of the United States, Ft. Knox, Ky.

Good man, good gun- a private of the armored forces does some practice shooting with a 30-calibre Browning machine gun, Fort Knox, Ky. The gun is mounted on a pedestal for anti-aircraft work.

Crewman of an M-3 tank, Ft. Knox, Ky.

Tank commander, Ft. Knox, Ky.

Halftrack infantryman with Garand rifle, Ft. Knox, Ky.

Man of the Fort Story, Va. coastal defense.

Man of the Fort Story, Va., coastal defense.

16-inch coastal artillery.

Electronics technician, Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Akron, Ohio.

Manufacture of self-sealing gas tanks, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio